Women appear to be at a 50 per cent greater risk from myocardial infarction from smoking tobacco than men.(420)
The increase in the risk of myocardial infarction attributable to cigarette smoking is largely reversible within a few years.(59)
Smoking responsible for 50,000 - 100,000 deaths per year. Average reduction in life expectancy of 10 yrs. Smoking related illness cost the National Health Service £370 million in 1984.(63)
Lifelong smoking can cut 18 years from a man's life. 30 yr old man will live to 64 if he smokes and to 82 if not Based on 8308 interviews in Erie Pennsylvania.(80)
Smoking and raised cholesterol are risk factors for the 65-74 age group as well as younger people.(97)
People with smoking related diseases cost the National Health Service £437 million/year. At any time they occupy 9000 beds. "Smoking is the largest single cause of preventable, premature death in this country (Health Education Authority - The Big Kill). 17 million smokers in UK. 110,000 die each year from smoking related diseases (this excludes passive smoking). Highest deaths in UK Manchester, lowest Maidstone & Kent.
Smoking doubles the chance of men dying before 65. 70% more women who smoked would die before the age of 65 than those who never smoked (Dr Spencer Haggard, Chief Exec Health Education Authority).(211)
The consistent demonstration that smoking is a strong, dose related, independent predictor of the incidence of coronary heart disease. Case against smoking is based upon convincing observational epidemiology.(216, 411)
1 in 4 15 year olds already regular smokers. 450 children start smoking every day.
Tobacco industry spends £72 million on advertising in Britain each year.
Cigarette smoking makes subarachnoid haemorrhage six times more likely in young smokers and doubles or trebles the chance of female infertility.
Parental smoking and asthma and middle ear effusion and allergic diseases during infancy.
More girls than boys now smoke, and the prevalence of maternal smoking in pregnancy is high. This results in more miscarriages and cases of premature labour and higher perinatal mortality and has effects extending beyond infancy, with a reduction in growth and educational achievement.(253)
"The fall in smoking prevalence in this country owes more to people giving up the habit than fewer people taking it up."
Stopping smoking :- advice only from General Practitioner 6% success after 1 year. Combined with other components up to 23% success.(261)
For passive smoking at work in China statistically significant linear trends of increasing risks (of coronary heart disease) with increasing exposures were observed.(301 )
A crushing condemnation of smoking. 34,500 doctors monitored from 1951 over 40 years, 20,000 deaths. Half of all regular cigarette smokers will be killed by the habit, the hazards are even greater than we thought. If you stop before the age of 35 your survival pattern will be the same as a previous non-smoker. Survival prospects significantly improved by stopping, even in the 70s.(316)
Smoking more than 20/day doubles the risk of age-related macular degeneration (blindness).(359)
Evidence of increased risk of coronary heart disease by passive smoking. 32,000 United States nurses followed for 10 years. 60% greater risk in those occasionally exposed. Twice the risk for those regularly exposed.(373)
Secondary smoking. Nonsmokers who live with smokers have 30% greater risk of coronary heart disease at age 65 than those not exposed to tobacco smoke. Equivalent to one cigarette a day.(388)
In another paper the authors estimate that after allowing for dietary confounding the excess risk of coronary heart disease in a non-smoker who lives with a smoker is 23%.(406). Exposure to other people's smoke has a significant effect upon the progression of atherosclerosis. (411)
1,000 deaths a year in Europe attributed to spouse's smoking. (415)
The reduction in tobacco deaths in middle age has been greater in Britain than in any other country. About ½ of those who smoke are killed by the habit, while among those who have never smoked or who have stopped 80% survive to 70 and 33% to 85. Two thirds of ex-smokers who have survived to 85 would have died if they had carried on smoking. They owe their lives to Sir Richard (Doll). (401)
Smokers are twice as likely as non-smokers to develop Alzheimer's disease. (426)
For a summary of public smoking policies in the UK and abroad see 429.
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